Showing posts with label jakarta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label jakarta. Show all posts
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More on the sinking of Jakarta

Sunday, September 26, 2010

On Sept 17, one of the lanes of the main road connecting Jakarta to the Tanjung Priok port collapsed. The police had to detour the traffic to another road. The culprit blamed for the incident is abrasion from salt water (news in Bahasa Indonesia):


Earlier on the 14th of September, another land subsidence occurred along Manggarai river in Sultan Agung street, causing the fence to tilt for 45 degrees (click here for more news).

Below is a video from ABCNews (2008) about the sinking of Jakarta. Main cause of the floods are solid wastes and squatters in riversides. Both causes the river to become shallow and narrow, thereby reducing its capacity during high flow. High-rise building and over-abstraction of groundwater also contribute to land subsidence and saltwater intrusion.




Related posts:

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The Potential Role of the Human Right to Water in the Management of Indonesia’s Water Resources

Saturday, September 25, 2010



The Human Right to Water under the Water Law? Yes. But look also at its elucidation.



If there is anything I forgot to upload into this website from the last World Water Week then it is my own presentation and pictures. So here it is. The title of my presentation is the above headline. I argue that the Human Right to Water may be able to correct structural loopholes in the current legal framework for water resources management in Indonesia. There are, however, prerequisites which must be fulfilled for such role to take place, and these are (i) building linkages between the Human Right to Water into the current judicial and legislative system and (ii) developing existing institutions, in terms of capacity, resources and mandate in order to incorporate human rights claims.

I have a draft paper to support my arguments which I decide not to share as it is still in the form of, well, a draft paper. But if you are interested, do email me at movanet(at) I await for your feedback and comments.







H.T. Dr. Riant Nugroho for the pics

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Legal Policy and Development. Jakarta's Water Future (World Water Week) - UPDATE

Sunday, September 12, 2010

This is the full version of Dr. Riant Nugroho’s Presentation at the World Water Week. The presentation is packed with the latest statistics on Indonesia’s water supply/sanitation and resources. A true reference indeed. Enjoy!

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Experts: Jakarta to sink by 2025

Monday, August 16, 2010


High tide floods 2007: “Signs of a sinking Jakarta”




Source: Presentation by Hongjoo Hahm and Janjaap Brinkmann (World Bank)


Brinkman’s statement that Jakarta might sink by 2025 was widely quoted by the media:

'The major reason for this is not climate change or whatever, but just the sinking of Jakarta,' said Mr Jan Jaap Brinkman, an engineer with Dutch consultancy Delft Hydraulics, who worked on the study. By 2025, estimates from the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change show, sea levels would have risen by only about 5cm. But Mr Brinkman said that Jakarta, which spans a plain between coast and mountains, will be between 40cm and 60cm lower than it is now. The study shows that without better defences, the sea will reach the presidential palace, which is around 5km inland, in 2025 as well as completely inundate Jakarta's historic old city.


What you may not have seen is their full presentation:

Download directly from World Bank’s website.

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Jakarta’s water leakage is at 50%

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Now, on to water services. VOA interviewed Jakarta Water Regulator who told that the rate of non-revenue water in Jakarta’s Water Supply System is around 50%. NGOs such as the Mercy Corps has been quite successful in engaging with local community in Penjaringan district in order to help them build water storage infrastructure. 


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Jakarta’s water crisis, whose fault?

Sunday, May 16, 2010


The company refused to be blamed:


“The massive silting that broke the pump in Pulogadung was caused by the declining quality of water. We fixed the pump and parts of the pipeline network,” Yosua said. “This  shortage is not entirely our fault.”
He said it would take more time for water to reach areas located farther from the main pipelines, which had been empty for days.
“And there are people in several neighborhoods in North Jakarta who collect water from hydrants too, and this makes [the distribution of water] even worse,” Yosua added.
Aetra Air Jakarta said it was becoming increasingly difficult to provide millions of Jakartans with potable water.
“The city has become overpopulated, and the levels of pollution have increased exponentially,” Yosua said. “These two factors greatly contribute to water  shortages in the city.”

Consumers are entitled to water services based on the service level as determined by law (if there are components of the service levels which are based on contracts, then they will not apply, as the law automatically derogates them). In Indonesia, water quality level is determined by the decree of the ministry of health  907/MENKES/SK/VII/2002 and Government Regulation 16/2005 (GR 16/2005) Article 6.2. In Jakarta, the continuity of water services is guaranteed by Regional by Law 13/92 and 11/93.

If any of these service levels are violated, based on GR 16/2005, consumer shall have the right to compensation. Article  67.1.a and 68.2.e of GR 16/2005 stipulates (in Bahasa):

(1) Setiap pelanggan air minum berhak:
a. memperoleh pelayanan air minum yang memenuhi syarat kualitas, kuantitas, dan
kontinuitas sesuai dengan standar yang ditetapkan;
b. mendapatkan informasi tentang struktur dan besaran tarif serta tagihan;
c. mengajukan gugatan atas pelayanan yang merugikan dirinya ke pengadilan;
d. mendapatkan ganti rugi yang layak sebagai akibat kelalaian pelayanan; dan
e. memperoleh pelayanan pembuangan air limbah atau penyedotan lumpur tinja.

Hak dan Kewajiban Penyelenggara
Pasal 68
(1) Setiap penyelenggara berhak:
a. memperoleh lahan untuk membangun sarana sesuai dengan peraturan perundangundangan;
b. menerima pembayaran jasa pelayanan sesuai dengan tarif/retribusi jasa pelayanan;
c. menetapkan dan mengenakan denda terhadap keterlambatan pembayaran tagihan;
d. memperoleh kuantitas air baku secara kontinu sesuai dengan izin yang telah
e. memutus sambungan langganan kepada para pemakai/pelanggan yang tidak
memenuhi kewajibannya; dan
f. menggugat masyarakat atau organisasi lainnya yang melakukan kegiatan dan
mengakibatkan kerusakan prasarana dan sarana pelayanan.

(2) Setiap penyelenggara berkewajiban untuk:
a. menjamin pelayanan yang memenuhi standar yang ditetapkan;
b. memberikan informasi yang diperlukan kepada semua pihak yang berkepentingan
atas kejadian atau keadaan yang bersifat khusus dan berpotensi akan
menyebabkan perubahan atas kualitas dan kuantitas pelayanan;
c. mengoperasikan sarana dan memberikan pelayanan kepada semua
pemakai/pelanggan yang telah memenuhi syarat, kecuali dalam keadaan memaksa
(force majeure);
d. memberikan informasi mengenai pelaksanaan pelayanan;
e. memberikan ganti rugi yang layak kepada pelanggan atas kerugian yang
f. mengikuti dan mematuhi upaya penyelesaian secara hukum apabila terjadi
perselisihan; dan
g. berperanserta pada upaya perlindungan dan pelestarian sumber daya air dalam
rangka konservasi lingkungan.
(3) Pemberian ganti rugi sebagaiman dimaksud pada ayat (2) huruf e diupayakan
berdasarkan penyelesaian di luar pengadilan atau melalui pengadilan.
(4) Upaya penyelesaian di luar pengadilan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (3)
dilakukan dengan arbitrase atau alternatif penyelesaian sengketa sesuai dengan
peraturan perundang-undangan.

From the legal point of view, consumer has the right to receive the continuity, quality and quantity of water as prescribed by law. They should be compensated if these rights are interrupted or not fulfilled due to the negligence committed by water undertakers. GR 16/2005 above also prescribes that water undertaker must pay a decent compensation to consumer for the loss they sustained. Although GR 16 is not particularly clear on what it means by ‘loss’ but this is likely to be a term for ‘violation of service levels’. 

Hence, under the law, ‘whose fault’ is not really the question for consumer. GR 16 does not differentiate whether the fault lies on the part of the bulk water supplier (in this case, PT Jasa Tirta) or the treatment and distribution facility (in this case, Palyja or Aetra). What the law require is for the consumer to be compensated, irrespective of whose fault it is.

'Whose fault’ is more a question for the government. The government is the one responsible to provide accountability mechanism in response to the complicated structural arrangement in the water sector. The government should determine where the liability lies and direct the compensation fund from the liable party to consumer.

More in this issue: my interview with Kompas (in Bahasa). 


Related Posts:
14 Disturbing Facts about Jakarta's Water
Supreme Court Decision on Water Monopoly in Batam
Water companies duty to satisfy reasonable demands

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14 Disturbing Facts about Jakarta's Water

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

Video: Kruha

The Jakarta Globe runs a special edition about Jakarta's Water last year and wrap them nicely in a downloadable PDF. I will sum up the statistics quoted by the globe in this Water special edition:

1. 20% of Jakartans have no access to toilet
2. 35 million people expected to be living and using water in Greater Jakarta by 2020
3. 60% less spending on infrastructure as a proportion of GDP than In Suharto's era
4. 140 elephants the weight of raw sewage goes into Jakarta's ground or waterways daily
5. 400,000 liters of waste dumped In the capital's rivers or canals everyday
6. 25cm some parts of Jakarta sink every year
7. $5.8 billion is Indonesia's annual economic and health cost for poor sanitation
8. 40% of homes in Jakarta have no piped water
9. 50% of treated water leaks out before getting to users
10. 20,000 squatters living on the banks of Pluit reservoir
11. 56,000 households flush their sewage straight into the ground
12. $600 low-end cost to connect a home to piped sewage system
13. 20% of the city’s daily waste ends up in local rivers, reducing their flow rate up to 50%
14. 150cm depth the city has sunk in some parts over the last decade

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RI water services suffering from a lack of governance

Tuesday, March 30, 2010

Below, I repost my article at today's JP
RI water services suffering from a lack of governance

Mohamad Mova Al ‘Afghani ,  Dundee, UK   |  Tue, 03/30/2010 9:48 AM  |  Opinion
From more than 300 water utilities currently operating, only a quarter is said to be financially healthy. The rest is either suffering from high debts or continuously failing to be able to cover its costs.

Meanwhile, the population keeps increasing and the quality of water from surface and groundwater sources is rapidly decreasing due to deforestation, pollution, saltwater intrusion and other problems caused by climate change. Experts are pessimistic that Indonesia will be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on water by 2015.

What is the real problem in the water services sector? There are funds out there ready to be invested by the private sector, but yet, most private sector participation in the water sector is failing.

Water is also abundant in this country, but in the form of floods or waste. Many reports consider that the real problem is not the lack of financial or natural resources, but the serious lack of governance.
Given the seriousness of water for our daily lives, it is a pity that we do not have any single national legislation dedicated specifically to managing water services.

The reason for this is partially because of regional autonomy, that those are the duties of local governments. 

Has local government paid enough attention to governing water services? No. What I hear most is the fuss about regional bylaws regulating the decency and morality standards of their citizens, such as those related to gambling, prostitution, alcoholic beverages or women’s clothing.

I am not suggesting that public morality cannot be regulated. It’s just that in terms of priorities, we are certainly losing our sight. There are obviously more people dying and ill because of waterborne diseases rather than from gambling or prostitution.

It is the lack of access to sufficient and safe water which contributes to the escalation of criminal and socially immoral activities.

Within the world of water activism itself, the debate is often sidetracked. In Indonesia, people tend to always debate between public versus private ownership of water utilities. I think they are asking the wrong question.

We know so much about the failure of privatization but yet so little about the success of public water utilities. So the real question should be aimed toward a solution: What governance mechanisms work for either public or private water utilities? In what circumstances can water be privatized and in what circumstances is a public ownership desirable?

This sidetracked debate has contributed to a bitter reality, that is, that both privatized and nonprivatized services develop without adequate governance.

Jakarta, for example, which has a population of more than 10 million in daylight, is regulated through bylaws enacted in 1992 and 1993, way before privatization (by way of concession) was carried out in 1998.

These bylaws are poorly drafted and do not reflect the need to incorporate post-privatization reality. What is happening now is that, in practice, Jakarta drinking water services are regulated mainly through concession contracts.

This fact is appalling because water is a political good that contracts alone are never enough to regulate.

When a Jakarta citizen asks to what rights are they entitled as a water customer, there’s not much that the 1992 and 1993 bylaws can answer because the 1998 privatization has changed the landscape of accountability from Jakarta’s local government and PAM Jaya to its concessionaires.

Some of the answers could be provided in the concession contracts. Unfortunately, the concession contracts are said to contain a confidentiality clause and therefore are never to be found in the public domain.

On the other hand, a citizen in Bogor can obtain clarity that they are entitled to a discount and even exemption from payments if their water utility delivers substandard services because Bogor municipality enacted a bylaw in 2006, stipulating the rights and obligations of the customer.

This is not to say that Bogor’s water services bylaws are perfect as there are many clauses which need amendment.

This is to say that when local government has a strong will to govern water services, it can.

Currently, there are several other water services cooperation, concessions and joint ventures taking place or being planned, oftentimes with the support of International Financial Institutions (IFI).
Reading their reports, I am skeptical that enough attention is given toward transparency, accountability and participation, all of which constitute an important element of governance.

Some reports even modeled water services as a sale-and-purchase transaction like other ordinary goods, whereby the Regional Water Company (PDAM) bought water from the private sector and re-sold it to customers, away from the scrutiny of local parliament and other accountability mechanisms. 

If this is the way to go, then we are doomed to another failure because no privatization is ever successful without proper regulatory governance.

If local government wishes to privatize, they should tightly regulate the private sector. No contracts can be above the law, especially when it comes to an essential element of human life such as water.

If they don’t regulate, they will soon realize that they will lose control. Prices rising, taps not flowing, no investment made to extend the network. 

When this happens, the citizens will come after them to demand responsibility. If they find no favorable answer, they can start taking matters into their own hands, such as by stealing water from the network.
This, in turn, will raise the burden on those who actually pay the price. If the local government decides to terminate the contract, the private sector will threaten to use international arbitration.  

Thus, local governments should start establishing the framework for transparency, accountability and participation through regional bylaws. If the services are to be privatized, they must ensure prior consent from the citizen.
Contracts should be available in the public domain, rights and duties of both customer and the service provider should be stipulated under bylaws, complaint mechanisms should be set up, redress should be available to customers, service levels and the consequences of violations thereof should be

No contracts can be above the law, especially when it comes to an essential element of human life such as water.

The writer is a PhD candidate at the UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science at the University of Dundee, UK.

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Jakarta's water problem

Friday, October 26, 2007

Pfff, check this out:

In my recent visit to Jakarta I found out that things are worse than I had envisaged. What I have feared has become reality. Lands in northern parts of Jakarta have subsided. Jakarta bypass has subsided by 50 centimeters since it was laid. The deep wells in Jakarta have to go deeper and deeper to produce water, and their output has been dropping off with time and many wells have been producing undrinkable water. Seawater has infiltrated as far as 7.5 kilometers from the coastline into the land and corrupted the groundwater such that it has become undrinkable.

Hopefully their mitigation plan works.

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Careful with blogs!

Tuesday, May 8, 2007

There was a good article from Karina Widyani in JP a few days ago. The title was "listening to the blogs". Here's a quote:

Among these "questionable" contents was an article on one of the blogs where Fauzi was mentioned to have been unwilling to report the fund he allocated for the election campaigns as required by the election commission. Note, however, that this article was not written by the blog's author; it was first published by Rakyat Merdeka daily on April 12. Similarly, the other contested blog contained some articles originally published by popular news Web site

"We are going to take firm action if our wish is not respected. Stop this activity before our anger sweeps across Jakarta," the Fauzi defenders team said in its press release, without specifying what action would involve.

Words are mightier than swords. This is not the first time the "attacks of the blogs" rocks. Some companies has been reported to continously losing their shares prices following their IPO, because bloggers wrote something about their scandal on the net.

Let's just face it. Freedom of speech dude! :)

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Jakarta flood and disaster management

Sunday, February 4, 2007

Most foreign media today says that the number of casualty for the Jakarta flood is 9. Local media however said that there are at least 20 dead. Thousands of civilians were trapped in flooded areas and need to wait for quite a long time before a rescue raft come to pick them up. But there wasn't enough raft for everyone. There should be enough rafts and boats if the armed forces were dispatched earlier to support the city police.

Communications are down, many telephone lines are off as the Telecom office is flooded by water, BTS antennas are also off due to electric cut. The flood had strucked down nearly all means of transportations from railways to toll roads. I think food distribution could be the next problem, in addition to the spreading of disease. I hope the officials have a clear chain of command in managing the situation although formally the disaster management law has not come into force.

Disaster management really should be a priority in the 2007 legislation program.