Strengthening mutual accountability and partnerships for WASH, Country Brief, Indonesia

Sunday, September 12, 2021

Source: Cunningham R; Al'Afghani, MM; Qowamuna NA; Winterford, K; Willetts, J (2021)

This study identified five main findings, as follows:

  1. There are various multi-stakeholder platforms in the national level in Indonesia which have varied characteristics, functions and membership, and some overlaps, and include five main platforms (Pokja, Jejaring, Sanitation Partners Group, Pokja PKP, Pokja Sanitasi). These platforms primarily serve as communication and coordination platforms between WASH stakeholders rather than serving to support accountability. 
  2. The social network analysis demonstrated high fragmentation and low cohesion across WASH stakeholders, with some WASH organisations having unique networks that they operate within, but which are not shared by other organisations. Donor and aid organisations had more frequent interactions with government compared to local NGOs and research organisations. 
  3. Currently there is no mutual accountability mechanism in place between national WASH stakeholders. Rather, there is evidence of accountability occurring internally within organisations or institutions. There is also evidence of accountability from development partner/NGO to the national government, and there are traditional vertical accountability mechanisms, a medium-term development plan to guide overall direction of the sector and mechanisms such as the Ombudsman and regular reporting. However, these do not constitute mutual accountability between WASH stakeholders. The existing multi-stakeholder platforms do not explicitly enable mutual accountability between WASH stakeholders. 
  4. COVID-19 did not change the existing accountability mechanisms. However, it changed the way WASH stakeholders communicate. The method of communication shifted from the traditional face-to-face communication to online communication. Online communication was considered to be more flexible, as well as cost and time effective. As such, by utilizing online platform, there is a potential to enhance participation of WASH  stakeholders in WASH discussion. 
  5. 5. Most WASH stakeholders had heard about SWA as a global partnership, but they were not aware of its specific activities in Indonesia. This is due to Indonesia’s relatively recent participation in SWA (Indonesia joined SWA in 2017) - as such most non-SWA partner organisations had no or little knowledge about SWA activities – and there was an absence of a multi stakeholder forum to facilitate Indonesia’s commitment in SWA. To increase accountability between WASH stakeholders, a forum that enables mutual accountability mechanism is needed. There is no need to establish a completely new forum as the existing multi-stakeholder forum can be optimized to accommodate this need – it is, however, important to redesign and improve the quality and effectiveness of the existing forum for it to function well. In line with the MAM, Pokja and Jejaring AMPL, which primarily function as a communication and coordination platform, can be redesigned to enable a process to hold stakeholders accountable for their commitments – allowing assessment, reviews, and necessary adjustments to the stakeholders’ performance. The MAM will have the potential to bind its members and enforce commitment implementation provided that there is a high-level support from the President as a reflection of political will as well as SWA’s strong support in the national and global level are essential to achieve this goal.

Download the full report here

Memperbaiki Arah Reformasi Regulasi

Al’Afghani, Mohamad Mova. “Memperbaiki Arah Reformasi Regulasi di Indonesia”. Implementasi Penguatan Regulasi dan Hukum di Indonesia, Seminar Nasional 2021, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Ibn Khaldun Bogor, UIKA Press, 2021 (Bookchapter)


Reformasi regulasi di Indonesia masih didominasi oleh dua konsep: command and control dan regulasi publik. Regulasi di Indonesia dipahami secara sempit hanya sebagai “peraturan perundang-undangan”. Obesitas dan inefisiensi regulasi tidak bisa ditangani hanya dengan cara mengurangi kuantitas peraturan perundang-undangan yang dibuat oleh pemerintah, tetapi dengan mengalihkan fungsi regulasi dan dengan memahami insentif dalam regulasi. Untuk mengurangi obesitas, inefisiensi dan tumpang tindih regulasi, makalah ini menjelaskan beberapa teknik dan jenis regulasi yang dapat diimplementasikan, diantaranya: regulasi privat, regulasi mandiri, regulasi monopoli alamiah, regulasi berbasis resiko dan regulasi algoritmik. Keseluruhan teknik ini dapat dikombinasikan satu sama lain termasuk didalamnya dengan command-and-control

Download Paper.

Alienating the 'Private' Sector: Implications of the Invalidation of the Water Law by the Indonesian Constitutional Court

Journal of Water Law 26/3 (2019)

In 2015, the Indonesian Constitutional Court invalidated Law no 7 Year 2004 on Water Resources. At the heart of the Judicial Review was the extent of private sector’s involvement in Indonesia’s water sector and the effort to regain “state control” on water resources, as required by the Constitution. In order to realize “state control”, the Constitutional Court decreed that state owned and region owned enterprises should be prioritized in the management of water resources. Further, involvement of private enterprise should be restricted and is only possible after water is allocated to other priorities. Unfortunately the Court did not define what is meant by “private sector”. This paper criticized the decision and discuss its far reaching implications.

Keywords: water, law, indonesia, privatization, constitution, private, constitution, policy


, , ,

Konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko: Telaah Kritis dalam Penerapannya pada Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja

Monday, May 24, 2021


Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja menekankan pada kemudahan untuk melakukan usaha. Salah satu hal yang menjadi perhatian adalah penyederhanaan perizinan berusaha. Konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko menarik bagi program penyederhanaan perizinan karena diasumsikan bahwa penerapannya dapat mengurangi jumlah perizinan. Namun, penerapan analisis resiko untuk menapis izin merupakan sesuatu yang berbeda dengan penerapan konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko di negara-negara lain. Selain itu, penerapan regulasi berbasis risiko juga perlu memperhatikan kritik yang tidak terakomodasi dalam Undang-Undang. Tulisan ini menjabarkan 4 (empat) kritik atas penerapan regulasi berbasis risiko dalam Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja, yaitu (i) format omnibus merancukan penilaian risiko, (ii) risiko volatilitas belum dipertimbangkan, (iii) risiko sistemik belum dipertimbangkan serta (iv) potensi “regulatory capture”. Secara konseptual, penerapan regulasi berbasis risiko memantik diskursus akademik mengenai pengertian regulasi secara luas yang telah jauh berkembang dari pemaknaan sempit dalam wacana akademik di Indonesia yang mendefinisikannya sebatas peraturan perundang-undangan semata. 

Kata kunci: Regulasi, Regulasi Berbasis Risiko, Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja, Omnibus. 


The Law on Job Creation emphasizes the ease of doing business. One of the things that is of concern is the simplification of business permit. The concept of risk-based regulation is attractive to simplify the programs due to the assumption that it may cut off a number of licenses. However, the application of risk analysis to screen permits is something different from other countries. In addition, the application of risk-based regulations also needs to pay attention to the critique that is not accommodated in the Law. This paper describes 4 (four) critiques of the application of risk-based regulation in the Law, (i) the omnibus format confuses risk assessment, (ii) volatility risk has not been considered, (iii) systemic risk has not been considered and (iv) potential “regulatory capture”. Conceptually, the application of risk-based regulation has sparked an academic discourse regarding the broad understanding of regulation that has evolved far from the narrow meaning in academic discourse in Indonesia which defines it only as a statutory regulation. 

Keywords: Regulation, Risk Based Ragulation, Job Creation Law, Omnibus

Download paper disini.


Water Allocation Issues Under Law 17/2019

Thursday, January 28, 2021


CRPG released Policy Brief 01/2021: Water Allocation Issues Under Law 17/2019

Five issues on water allocation were raised: prioritization of drinking water utility, conflict between the same category of uses, groundwater and conjunctive uses, water footprint and the impact of jobs creation law.